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Multiple Choice problems

Choose either A, B, C, or D

problem1) Characteristics of a watershed management approach include:

A) Clean Water  Act section 404 permits and  regulations.
B) Economic development, improved ecosystem function, and  stakeholder involvement.
C) Geographic focus,  sound management techniques, and  stakeholder involvement.
D) Data management, volunteer monitoring, education and outreach.


The following statement  is not the characteristic of watershed management approach where stakeholders are involved:

A) The roles and  relationships of resource managers and stakeholders change with time.
B) Watershed management recognizes the interconnectedness of all the physical and biological components of the watershed, including human communities.
C) Watershed management entails stakeholder involvement within political boundaries.
D) Watershed management integrates scientific information and societal values.


The following should be considered when  identifying problems/concerns and  developing objectives in the watershed management plan:

A) To save time and  money, not everyone with a stake in the watershed should be involved right from the beginning.
B) The group  would go back  and forth between identifying concerns/problems, seeking and  analyzing data, and establishing objectives.
C) All watershed concerns are based on science and  must  be addressed by the group.
D) A, B, and  C above.


Which of the following challenges is not true about watershed management approach where stakeholders are involved?

A) Some key stakeholders might lack the time, motivation, skills, or resources to participate effectively throughout management planning process.
B) Resource management professionals are always ready and willing to give up their role as experts and to share authority with laypersons regarding natural resource management issues.
C) Conflicts between stakeholders over management goals and the means to accomplish those goals are inevitable.
D) Stakeholder-based approaches require time and  resources to generate interest and to build relationships between stakeholders.


A watershed management plan could be effectively implement if:

A) There are no environmental groups and  large influential corporations in the watershed.
B) Key stakeholders are involved based on their convenience.
C) Key stakeholders have the resources and  oversight of the plan.
D) A, B, and  C above.


Which of the following statements was never recognized as an issue by National Research Council during the evaluation of the Total Maximum Daily Load program?

A) Focus on improving the condition of water  bodies as measured by the attainment of designated uses.
B) Address all stressors that determine the condition of a water body.
C) Recognize that scientific uncertainty cannot be entirely eliminated.
D) Encourage stakeholder participation within the political boundaries of states.


Which of the following is not an environmental benefit of watershed management planning?

A) Enables more efficient management of wetland permitting programs.
B) Protects wildlife habitat.
C) Improves quality of drinking water  and  recreational use.

D. Controls flooding by restoring riparian and wetland areas.


Phase I of the Federal Clean Water  Act (technology based):

A) Requires developers who disturb  construction sites of 1 to 5 acres to apply for a discharge permit.
B) Prohibits discharge of any pollutant to U.S. waters from a point source.
C) Prohibits discharge of any pollutant to U.S. waters from a non-point source.
D) Prohibits discharge of any pollutant to U.S. waters from a point source unless discharge is authorized by an NPDES  permit.


Why is wetland mitigation banking  advantageous?

A) Reduces uncertainty over whether the mitigation will be successful in offsetting project impacts.
B) Reduces permit processing times and provides more cost-effective mitigation opportunities.
C) Enables the efficient use  of limited regulatory agency resources in the review and compliance monitoring of mitigation projects because of consolidation.
D) A, B, and  C above.


According  to the Federal Clean Water  Act, Water  quality standards:

A) Have designated uses and  conditions supporting the uses.
B) Determine to what degree a water body may incur degradation without jeopardizing existing uses.
C)  Are established through government stipulation and a policy of minimal degradation.
D) A, B, and  C above.


As an applicant for a dredge and fill permit from the U.S. Army Corps  of Engineers, to the extent practicable, you do not need to show that you have:

A) Provided compensatory mitigation for any unavoidable impacts.
B) Enough resources to manage stormwater at the site.
C) Taken steps to avoid wetland impacts.
D) Minimized potential impacts on wetlands.


Which of the following factors should you consider when  collecting or generating accurate information (that you can  use  to make  a sound, science-based decision) about the level of contamination in the environment?

A) The quality and  appropriateness of the laboratory analysis.
B) The appropriateness and  accuracy of the sample collection and handling method.
C) The representativeness of the data with respect to the objective of the study.
D) A, B, and  C above.

problem13) In watershed management, the team leader/coordinator must  educate all stakeholders:

A) To reduce the time between actions and  results of the watershed project.
B) To increase awareness, participation and  elicit behavior changes in some stakeholders.
C) To meet political and congressional requirements.
D) A, B, and  C above.


Nonpoint  source pollutants (such  as sediments, phosphorus and  nitrogen) are:

A) The major sources of water pollution in the U.S. today.
B) Relatively simple to measure, monitor and  regulate.
C) Less important than  siltation caused by erosion from agricultural, logging, and  construction sites.
D) A, B, and  C above.


A significant impediment to the use  of effluent permit trading  system is:

A) A requirement of Federal Clean Water Act that all existing, expanding, and  new facilities meet all applicable technology-based requirements.
B) The realization that effluent permit trading will eventually allow total pollutant levels to increase .
C) The fact that the Federal Clean Water does not authorize permit-trading systems.
D) Lack of penalties for violators.

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