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Introduction of operation research:

Operations Research is a science in which deals with the problem, solutions, formulation and finally appropriate the decision making. The subject is original and started after World War second when failures of missions were extremely high. Technocrats and Scientists formed team to study the problem arising out of the difficult situations and these problems. In India first unit of operation research started in the year of 1957 with it is base at RRL Hyderabad. Other group was set up in Defense Science Laboratory which was followed with the similar units at different part of country.

Definition of operation Research:

Operations research is an application of scientific methods to appear the optimal solutions to the problems. Operational Research is use of advanced analytical techniques to improve the decision making. Operations research is the analytical method of decision-making and problem-solving that is useful in management of the organizations.

Operation research is the art of giving bad answers to the problems which if not have better answers. A common misconception detained by many is that operation research is a set of mathematical tools.

Why is Operation Research needed?

As it makes sense to compose the best use of available resources. Today universal markets and direct communications mean that customers expect services and high-quality products when they want them where they require them. Organizations whether private or public need to provide these products or services as efficiently and effectively as possible.

Featured of operation research: The important features of Operations Research include the followings

Decision-Making: It is also helps the decision maker to improve his judicious capabilities and creative,  analyses and understand problem situation.     

Scientific Approach: Operation Research applies technical methods, tools and techniques for the purpose of analysis or solution of the difficult problems.

Inter-disciplinary Approach: Mostly the industrial problems are of difficult nature and therefore require a team try to handle it. This team comprises of the scientist and technocrats.

System Approach: The main aim of the system approach is to the trace for every proposal all important and indirect effects on all the sub-system on a system.

The operations research Approach: This approach comprises the following seven chronological steps: (1) Orientation, (2) Problem Definition, (3) Model Formulation, (4) Data Collection, (5) Solution, (6) Implementation and Monitoring and (7) Model Validation and Output Analysis.

Limitation of Operation Research:

1. Costly;

2. Complex;

3. Not realistic;

4. Implementation;

Operation Research Function, Methods and Manufacturing:

Functions: Operation Research may help decision-makers in almost several management functions. To illustrate Operation Research supports to the key decision making process allows to the solve urgent problems can be utilized to the design improved multi-step operations, setup policies, supports the planning and forecasting steps and procedures actual results.

Methods: The methods commonly utilized in Operation Research may appear obscure. Technical labels such as multi-criteria's decision analysis non-linear and linear programming, and discrete-event simulation, stochastic and queuing process modeling, neural networking or conjoint analysis further foster this general impression. 1. Simulations methods, 2. Optimizations methods, 3. Data-analysis methods.

Manufacturing: The term operations in Operation Research may suggests the manufacturing application category represents the original home of operation Research. This is not quite accurate as the name of originated from military operations not business operations. It's a true statement that operation research's successes in modern business pervade manufacturing or service operations, distribution, logistics, transportation and telecommunication.

Phases of Operation research: There are three in operation research; 1.Judgment phase, 2. Action phase, 3.Reearch phase.

 Scope of operation research:

The scope of Operation Research is not only confined to some specific agency like defense services but now it is widely used in all manufacturing organizations. It can be used to find the greatest solution to any problem be it complex or simple. It is useful in the each field of human activities where optimization of resources is required in best method.

Summary: Operations Research its beginning, its approach to solving the problems and some examples of the successful applications. From the point of view of an industrial engineer. Operations research is a tool that can do great deal to improve the productivity. The driving idea behind Operations research is to collaborate by the clients to design and improve operations, solve problems, make better decisions, and advance managerial function including policy formulation, forecasting, planning, and performance dimension.

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