(a) Illustrate out the following terms:
i. Sustainable Development as per Manning and Dougherty (1995).
ii. Sustainable Tourism Development (STD) concept as per Butler (1993).
(b) Discuss and illustrate out the three (3) major principles of Sustainable Development as per McIntyre, (1993).
(c) Ding and Pigram (1995), discusses that the WTO report suggests that tourism requires to be developed to satisfy three (3) broad principles, recognize and illustrate out these three principles.
(d) Recognize any six (6) aims that sustainable development needs to accomplish.
(a). Make a distinction between tourism planning and tourism policy.
(b). Illustrate out the sequence of stages which have to be followed in planning procedure required for implementation of a tourism development plan for destination.
Using a relevant area as illustration, illustrate out and describe the various phases which a destination might go through as outlined by Tourist Area Life Cycle (TALC) proposed by Butler (1980). Support with an appropriate diagram.
It has been suggested that without long-term planning and successful management strategies, tourism impacts could destroy the foundation of the tourism sector.
(i) In relation to this statement describe “Socio-cultural impacts” as per Cohen (1984).
(ii) As per the above statement managing socio-cultural impacts is a critical success factor to consider in order ensuring sustainability of area. In brief illustrate out the relevance of these models in relation to socio-cultural impacts in relation to host community’s attitudes:
a. Demonstration effect
b. Social Exchange Theory
c. Doxey’s Irridex Model