What does it mean to say that something has value? It is a way of saying that it has worth. Something that is worthless has no value except perhaps in the negative. However, values differ according to the entities to which the values in problem are attributed. For instance, the value of a pen is not the same as the value of a dog.
Values fall under two broad categories: intrinsic and instrumental. How does the values of the dog and the pen differ, for instance?