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problem1) Which of the following is not usually the aim of epidemiology?

A) To describe health status of the population    
B) To fund new public health programs    
C) To describe the etiology of disease    
D) To predict occurrence of disease    
E) To control distribution of disease    


The Epidemic Intelligence Service (EIS) is responsible for:

A) tracking down unusual disease outbreaks in United States and foreign countries
B) collecting epidemiologic intelligence for local health departments    
C) disseminating epidemiologic information to members of the community    
D) reporting suspicious epidemiologic agents to governmental agencies    


Which of the following activities characterizes a clinical approach (as opposed to an epidemiologic approach)?

A) Explanation of specific signs and symptoms    
B) Explanation of seasonal trends in disease occurrence    
C) Examination of disease occurrence among population groups    
D) Demonstration of geographic variations in disease frequency    


Indicate level of prevention represented by screening for breast cancer

A) Primary Prevention Active    
B) Primary Prevention Passive    
C) Secondary Prevention    
D) Tertiary Prevention    


Cyclic variations in occurrence of pneumonia and influenza mortality might reflect

A) seasonal variations in cases of influenza    
B) fact that influenza is a disappearing disorder    
C) long-term changes in mortality trends    
D) both A and B    


Which of the following terms is expressed as proportion (as distinguished from a ratio)?

A) Male Births / Female Births   
B) Female Births / Male + Female Births   
C) Female Births / Male Births   
D) A and C    


Risk of acquiring a given disease during a time period is best determined by

A) mortality rate from that disease in the 0-4 age group    
B) spot map that records all cases of the disease in past year    
C) period prevalence for that disease during past year    
D) incidence rate (cumulative incidence) for that disease in a given period of time


Epidemiologic survey of roller-skating accidents in Metroville, a city with population of 100,000, produced following:
Number of skaters in Metroville during any given month: 12,000
Roller-skating accidents in Metroville: 600
Total number of residents injured from roller-skating:1,800
Total number of deaths from roller-skating:90
Total number of deaths from all causes:900
The cause-specific mortality rate from roller-skating was:

A) 90/600 × 100,000    
B) 90/100,000 × 100,000    
C) 90/1,800 × 100,000    
D) 90/900 × 100,000    


Use of Geographic Information Systems might be thought of as following heritage of

A) Graunt   
B) Snow   
C) Koch   
D) Semmelweis   


As characteristic of persons, age is perhaps vital factor to consider when one is describing occurrence of virtually any disease or illness, because

A) older people are more health conscious    
B) older people seek medical treatment more often    
C) there is a greater variance in age-specific disease rates than in rates defined by almost any other personal attribute    
D) there are more numbers in ages than in geographical places or diseases in a population


What factors must be considered in measuring long-term changes in disease frequency over time?

A) Changes in diagnostic criteria    
B) Changes in the age distribution    
C) Changes in the fatal course of the condition    
D) All of the above    


According to natural history of disease model, the time before precursors of disease and the host interact is called the period of

A) Prepathogenesis   
B) Pathogenesis   
C) Primogenesis   
D) B and C    


Which form of prevention takes place after precursors of disease interact with the host?

A) Tertiary   
B) Secondary   
C) Primary   
D) Both A and B    


In 1900, the death rate per 100,000 populations for influenza and pneumonia (I & P) was 202.2; it was 22.4 in 2003. How much did th death rate due to I & P decline

A) 74%    
B) 1000%    
C) 89%    
D) 9%    
E) None of the above    


Blood pressure measurements on adult males 30-39 years of age were obtained in a survey of a representative sample of Twin Cities households. To compare frequency of hypertension in the white and non-white population surveyed, the most suitable measure is the

A) incidence rate    
B) prevalence   
C) race-specific prevalence    
D) race-specific incidence rate

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