Risks of corruption are frequently linked to lack of transparency, which in turn can lead to inconsistent distribution of information to bidders. Illustrate four (4) instances of the different stages of a procurement process whereby transparency is significant.
Transparency is indispensable in public procurement but it is not the only situations to ensure integrity throughout the procurement process. The professionalism of procurement officers is also essential for good management and prevention of misconduct, compliance and monitoring. Illustrate why professionalism of procurement officers is essential.
Name all three (3) typical risks in the tendering process and illustrate how we can mitigate these risks?
Public procurement is particularly vulnerable to corruption because of the high level of funds involved. What do you understand by the term corruption?
Make a distinction between Bureaucratic and Political corruption. Give exs for each type.
Describe and discuss the causes for engaging in corruption?