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Incidence and prevalence data have sveral applications in public health. Prevalence data is used:

A) For estimating frequency of exposure    
B) To express burden or extent of some condition or attribute in population    
C) To provide direct estimate of risk of developing a disease    
D) A and B    


Incidence of disease is five times greater in men than in women, but prevalence shows no sex difference. The most probable explanation is that:

A) mortality rate is greater in women.    
B) case fatality rate is greater in women    
C) duration of the disease is greater in women    
D) women receive less adequate medical care for the disease    


High rates of mortality from hypertension found among African Americans might be due to

A) Dietary factors    
B) Exposure to stress    
C) Obesity   
D) All of the above    


According to classic studies, age-standardized morbidity rates in United States for acute conditions, chronic conditions, and disability due to acute conditions show following sex differences:

A) Rates for males are higher than rates for females.    
B) Rates for males are equal to the rates for females.    
C) Rates for females are higher than rates for males.    
D) Females have higher rates of hearing impairment than males.    
E) B and D    


Descriptive epidemiology characterizes amount and distribution of disease within population to enable researcher to

A) make direct tests of etiologic hypotheses    
B) generate testable hypotheses regarding etiology    
C) evaluate trends in health and disease within a population    
D) All of the above    
E) B and C only    


Studies of nativity and migration have reported that:

A) admission rates of foreign-born persons to mental hospitals were lower than for native-born persons    
B) diseases found in less developed regions are no longer problem in United States
C) some migrants have inadequate immunization status with respect to vaccine-preventable diseases    
D) immunization programs in developing countries have been highly successful


Identify incorrect option. Case clustering:

A) is of indeterminate significance for rare diseases, as clusters might occur by chance alone    
B) suggests common exposure of group of people to etiologic agent    
C) is called temporal clustering for geographic concentrations of cases    
D) has been shown for angiosarcoma and vaginal carcinoma    
E) None of these are correct    


Which of the following reasons may account for place variation in disease

A) Concentration of racial or ethnic groups within area    
B) Genetic and environment interactions    
C) Influence of climate    
D) Presence of environmental carcinogens    
E) All of the above    


Which of Mill’s four canons suggests that there is association among frequency of disease and potency of the causative factor

A) Difference   
B) Agreement   
C) Concomitant variation    
D) Residues   


Using epidemiology for operational research involves: of community health services of risks to the individual of disease syndromes    
D.All of the above

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