In Kane v. Freeman, the district court reviewed the long standing affirmative action plan for City of Tampa's Police Department and determined that:
1. Affirmative action is universal answer to problem of remedying racial discrimination.
2. Having a diverse police force isn’t a compelling governmental interest which justifies the use of affirmative action plan.
3. An affirmative action plan can’t continue after vestiges of past discrimination have been eliminated.
4. A police department shouldn’t have affirmative action plan.