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problem1) A systems approach views and focuses on organizational phenomena and dynamics in their relatedness, their connectedness, their interdependence, their interaction and the holistic point of view. Describe the importance of viewing OD from this perspective.

problem2) On what criteria are OD Interventions designed? describe the types of OD Interventions initiated in organisations specifying the objective of each using the ex of each. How will Action research help in this process?

problem3)(i) Distinguish between leading and managing change?

(ii) describe the role of change agent in organizational change. describe how does the capability of change agent impact effective interventions in organisation development interventions. Support your answer with suitable exs.

problem4) Force Field Analysis is an extremely useful tool when the organisation requires a cultural change. Describe how this could be done for a government organization getting prepared to face competition both domestic and global. Describe using Lewin’s three stage model of change what steps will have to be taken to initiate the interventions.


Case Study

Lockheed Martin: A Survival Story

Lockheed Corp., one of the world’s largest aerospace companies lost 60 percent of its business in 1989 because of reduction in the U.S. government’s spending on national defense, severe budget cuts at NASA, and losses in the airline industry. Lockheed was fighting for its life. A decade later, Lockheed has tripled sales from $10 billion to $30 billion and is thriving.

In 1995, Lockheed joined forces with Martin Marietta Corp. to become Lockheed Martin. Each company had some technical expertise the other did not. Lockheed Martin is now the world-leader in building satellites and the U.S. leader in launching spacecraft and the largest provider for the U.S Department of Defense, Department of Energy, and NASA.

Survival was based on restructuring to trim costs as well. Lockheed Marlin reduced its plant space by 16 million square feet and its workforce by 100,000 people, thereby saving $2.6 billion annually. Finally, a company should get most from its workforce. Lockheed Martin officials, thus, have focused on eliminating layers of hierarchy pushing decision making down the organization chart. Lockheed Marlin executives keep an open line of communication to the company’s 200,000 employees. By doing so, they hope to keep employees focused on their jobs by dispelling rumors about the company’s future.

Case problems:

problem5)a) What factors led to the change? Were they push factors or pull factors?

b) What type of change was initiated?

c) Were there any better alternatives?

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