problem 1: Every formal organization comprises smaller informal organizations whose goals require to be harnessed to those of the whole.
a) Differentiate between formal and informal organizations.
b) Examine why informal organizations exist and give illustrations to support your arguments.
c) Describe how far informal organizations can help a formal organization in reaching its goals.
problem 2: Organizations like educational institutions are viewed as open systems.
a) Describe the different elements that help to view schools as open systems.
b) Examine how far educational institutions can be viewed as the open systems.
problem 3: All large organizations contain some bureaucratic elements and this is true of educational institutions.
Examine this statement and validate your arguments with illustrations.
problem 4: Goals must be specific, measurable, achievable, realistic and time bound.
Critically describe this statement in relation with an educational institution and support your arguments with illustrations.
a) Examine the concept of ‘organizational effectiveness’ with respect to the educational institutions.
b) Critically describe the type of leadership which is comprised with organizational efficiency.