problem 1: Cite five illustrations of fungi which are beneficial to human beings.
problem 2: Why are lichens describeed as the pioneers of the vegetation?
problem 3: Do you consider lichens as illustrations of mutualism or controlled parasitism? Describe.
problem 4: Enumerate all the challenges which the aquatic plants had to meet up for migrating to new terrestrial environments throughout the course of their evolution.
problem 5: Describe the most important lines of evolution of Sporophytes in bryophytes. Cite illustrations and make their illustrations to support your discussion.
problem 6: Bryophytes are precious to the gardeners and the horticulturists. Describe giving appropriate illustrations.
problem 7: In brief describe with the help of labeled diagrams the xeromorphic and hydromorphic characters of the Equisetum species.
problem 8: Compare the elaters of Equisetum with that of Marchantia and Anthoceros.
problem 9: What features of the process of reproduction and the structure of reproductive organs in Selaginella recommend that it approaches the seed habit? Describe.
problem 10: Polarity can be seen in which phases of the life cycle of the pteridophytes? describe the manifestations of polarity in the Equisetum.