1. Why is it so difficult to measure the effectiveness of leadership in an organization?
According to J.T. Wren (1995) there is no possible way to measure the effectiveness of leadership for the reason that an individual's leadership style varies from person-to-person and is determined by the methodology in which he/she handles the situation. Leadership is often measured by an individual's ability to motivate and influence change within an organization or community. Consequently, leadership effectiveness is primarily predicated upon a leader's ability to receive adequate results whether the leader is a positive influence or a negative influence on followers.
2. What criteria do you use to determine the effectiveness of leaders?
In determining a leader's effectiveness I would assess whether he/she is a transformational or transactional leader. According to Bass (1990), "transformational leaders inspire employees to exceed the expected by embracing a vision and striving to achieve that vision. Transformational leaders demonstrate specific behaviors and actions: attributed charisma, inspirational motivation, intellectual stimulation, and individualized consideration (Conger, 1999). Attributed charisma occurs when leaders demonstrate behaviors that engender respect and trust. Leaders who display charisma demonstrate interest in the well-being of others, stay calm in crisis situations, formulate decisions that benefit the group as a whole, demonstrate competence, and earn followers' respect" (Bass & Avolio, 1994).