Which of the following statements about a not-for-profit firm's cost of capital estimate is most correct?
a. Since a not-for-profit firm has no shareholders, its WACC estimate does not include a cost of equity (fund capital) estimate.
b. The capital structure weights for a not-for-profit firm are set at 50/50, because such firms can raise $1 of debt financing for each dollar of retained earnings.
c. The cost of tax-exempt debt issued by not-for-profit firms is increased ("grossed up") by 1 - T in the WACC estimate to reflect the fact that such firms do not pay taxes.
d. Equity (fund) capital has a cost that is roughly equivalent to the cost of retained earnings to similar investor-owned companies.
e. Not-for-profit firms have a zero cost of capital.