Gas chromatography is a sensitive technique used by chemists to measure small amounts of compounds. The response of a gas chromatograph is calibrated by repeatedly testing specimens containing a known amount of the compound to be measured. A calibration study for a specimen containing 1 nanogram (ng) (that's 10-9 gram) of a compound gave the following response readings:
21.6 20.0 25.0 21.9
The response is known from experience to vary according to a normal distribution unless an outlier indicates an error in the analysis. Estimate the mean response to 1 ng of this substance, and give the margin of error for your choice of confidence level. Then describe to a chemist who knows no statistics what your margin of error means.