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## Statistics

Introduction:

Statistics is the branch of the mathematics used to summarize, interpret, and analyze what we observe to make the sense or meaning of observations. We use the data in everyday lives. To be able to use the data correctly is essential to many profession and is in own best self-interest.

Statistics is the collection of methods for collecting, analyzing, displaying, and drawing conclusions from the data. Statistics is a study of organization, interpretation, analysis and presentation of the information. It deals with the all aspects of the data including planning of data collection in terms of the design of experiments and surveys.

The modern field of the statistics emerged in late 19th and early on 20th century in three stages. First wave at the turn of century was led by work of Sir Francis Galton and Karl Pearson who transformed the statistics into the rigorous mathematical discipline used for the analysis.  Galton contributions to field included introducing the concepts of the standard of deviation, regression, correlation and application of these methods to study of variety of the human characteristics - height, eyelash, weight, and length among others.

Statistics is described as the mathematical body of the science that is pertains to the collection, interpretation, analysis or explanation, and presentation of the data, or as the branch of mathematics concerned with the collecting and interpreting data. Statisticians improve the data quality by the developing specific experiment designs and survey samples. Statistics itself also provides tools for the prediction and forecasting use of data via statistical models. Statistics is the applicable to the wide variety of academic disciplines, including social sciences and natural, business and government.

We begin by introducing two general types of the advanced statistics:

1. Descriptive statistics:  The Descriptive statistics are specifically used to describe or summarize numeric observations and referred to data. The Descriptive statistics are typically presented graphically in tabular form and as summary of statistics.

2. Inferential statistics:  The Inferential statistics are procedures used that allow researchers to infer and generalize observations made with the samples to the larger residents from which they were selected.

Advanced Statistical methods:  there are two types of methods in advanced statistics they are.

Experimental: Consideration of the selection of the experimental subjects and ethics of the research is necessary. The Statisticians recommend that experiments compare one latest treatment with the standard treatment and control to allow an unbiased estimation of difference in treatment effects.

Observational studies: Observational study is the one that explores correlation between smoking and the lung cancer. This type of the study typically uses the survey to collect the observations about area of the interest and then performs the statistical analysis.

Advanced statistics Levels of the measurement:

There are four main levels of the measurement used in the statistics: nominal, interval, ordinal, and ratio. Each of these has the different degrees of usefulness in the statistical research. Ratio measurements have both meaningful zero value and distances between different measurements define; they provide greatest flexibility in the statistical methods that can be used for the analyzing data. Interval measurements have meaningful distances between the measurements defined but the zero value is the arbitrary. The Ordinal measurements have imprecise differences between the consecutive values but have meaningful order to those values. The Nominal measurements have no meaningful rank order among the values.

Summary:

Statistics to the scientific, societal or industrial problem, it is a necessary to begin with population and process to be studied. Populations can be diverse the topics such as all persons living in the country or each atom composing crystal. Population can also be composed of the observations of the process at various times with data from the each observation serving as different member of overall group. The Data collected about this kind of population.

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### Question 1before beginning a study investigating the

QUESTION 1 Before beginning a study investigating the ability of a drug to lower cholesterol, baseline values of total serum cholesterol were measured for a sample of 30 healthy controls thought not to be at risk forcard ...

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