Find out if the variable in problem is a confounder
1. A study of relationship between exercise and heart attacks that is conducted between women who don't smoke. Determine whether gender is confounder.
2. A case-control study of relationship between liver cirrhosis between both non alcoholics and alcoholics. Determine whether smoking is confounder.
3. Interpret the results of following studies
An odds ratio of 1.2 (95% confidence interval: 0.8-1.5) is found for association of low socioeconomic status and occurrence of obesity.