1. At the end of the period it is necessary to close all temporary accounts. (a) describe why this process is required and (b) provide an ex of the closing of an expense account, Income Tax Expense in the form of a journal entry.
2. As required to complete Course Project, one must follow the cycle that includes 10 steps to complete the accounting cycle. (a) describe which financial reports can be generated and (b) provide an ex of information that those financial reports would provide.
3. Internal Control Procedures are required to safeguard company assets and to ensure ethical operation of the business. (a) describe how comparisons and compliance monitoring can satisfy the purpose of internal control and (b) provide an ex of how this control could be implemented.
4. Inventory valuation methods determine the cost of goods sold and the inventory balance. (a) describe how the Last in First out (LIFO) method is applied and (b) provide an ex of the impact that this method of inventory valuation will have on Cost of Goods Sold (COGS).
5. To evaluate the financial operation and health of a business, ratio analysis is used. (a) Provide the formula for Accounts Receivable Turnover and describe how it is computed and (b) provide an ex of how this ratio can be used in decision-making in business.
6. Depreciation is a process to allocate the cost of long-life assets to each period's income statement and adjusts the value of the asset on the balance sheet. (a) describe how the straight-line method is computed and (b) provide an ex of how this method could be used on a new delivery truck purchased for $25,000 to be used for 4 years with a salvage value of $0 for year one only.
7. To raise capital, companies might sell bonds. This allows them to bypass lenders such as banks and go directly to the investing public. Your company is planning to sell bonds with a face amount of $10,000 and paying 5% annual interest. (a) The day the bonds hit the market, the bond price is quoted at 101.5. What is the bond's selling price? and (b) how does the company record this sale in its accounting information system? Use journal entries to support your answer.
8. Financial statement analysis is used by investors, creditors, and managers of business to evaluate the operation and health of the business. This information is in part the basis for decision-making. (a) Identify ratios used to evaluate the profitability of a company and (b) provide an ex of how the results of this analysis could be used to make business decisions.
9. There are three different forms of business; sole-proprietor, partnership, and corporation. (a) describe why a corporation's government regulations may be a disadvantage and (b) as a stockholder describe why a stockholder would want to own preferred stock.
10. Inventory valuation methods allow management to select a method that best fits their business model. Given the following data, what is the value of the cost of goods sold as determined by the First in First out (FIFO) method? Show all computations. Sales revenue 300 units at $15 per unit Purchases 240 units at $10 per unit Beginning inventory 120 units at $8 per unit.
11. Most businesses extend credit to other businesses as a way of increasing sales. The risk is that some of the accounts may not pay the amount due. In these cases, we have to account for uncollectible receivables. (a) describe how the percent-of -sales method works and (b) provide an ex of a journal entry that would adjust accounts for the loss.