What are the general tax planning concepts that you should consider when evaluating any taxpayer's situation with respect to any tax?
a) Maximize the net present value of after-tax wealth for all participants to a tax plan and all taxes affecting the tax plan.
b) Maximize the net present value of after-tax income for all participants to a tax plan and all taxes affecting the tax plan.
c) Shift components of the tax base to exploit differences in the marginal tax rates.
d) Shift revenues to the lowest marginal tax rate AND shift deductions to the highest marginal tax rate (after considering the impact of the time value of money when relevant).
e) All of the above.
f) a and b, above.
g) a and c, above.
h) b and d, above.