Short-term and long-term growth rates
In late 2002, analysts were forecasting fiscal 2003 and 2004 earnings per share for Cisco Systems of $0.54 and $0.61, respectively. Cisco's shares traded at $15 at the time. Assuming the long-term growth rate will be at 4 percent, the average rate of growth for gross national product, value Cisco using the model in equation. Apply the formula to earnings rather than operating income and use a required return for equity of 9 percent.