We simplify the concept of structuring of multiple occupations
Overview Of Occupational Structure
The term Occupational Structure is referring to the cumulative delegation of the occupations in a social setup. The classification of Occupational Structure is done based on skill levels, economical functioning or social status. The occupational structure is designed by several criteria viz. the economic framework (relative weight age of various industrial sectors), technological and bureaucratic factors (delegation of technological competencies and administrative roles and responsibilities), labor intensive market (that decides the remunerations and terms and conditions linked to the occupation) and by social status (impacted by life style and moral values). It is not easy to assign importance to any one of these criteria, further their contribution in formulating the occupational structure varies over time as the social setup changes. As an example, in the initial phase of European industrial revolution, the predominance of manufacturing gave way to flourishing of manual work whereas recently, due to shrinkage of this sector, manual labor has given way to white collared jobs due to flourishing of service sector. The difference between manual and non-manual occupations has also narrowed down.
Indian economic scenario follows certain patterns of occupational structure. These have typical features synonymous of the type of the specific occupation in question. Some of the key features of occupational structure in an Indian environment are as follows:-
- Agriculture is the major occupation-
India is mainly an agrarian economy. Around two-thirds of the Indian economy is involved in agriculture. This has led to shadow unemployment. Hence, there are little chances of lowering the burden of population on agriculture.
- Lower development of industries-
Around 15% of population is dependent on manufacturing sector in India. In USA, UK and Japan, roughly 30%, 42% and 39% of the population is involved in secondary industries. This is an indication that India is industrially backward compared to developed countries
Indian economy is very unbalanced. The manufacturing processes are not developed. Excessive dependence on agriculture is a sign of backward economy.
Per head income and standard of living of the persons living in India is extremely less as an agrarian economy generates lower income than trading.
Prevalence of agriculture in India is an indication that majority of the population is residing in small villages and the percentage of population living in urban areas is very less. In India, around three-fourths of the population lives in villages and one-fourth in towns and cities.
Around two-third of Indian population is involved in agriculture. Still food grains are imported from other countries. This proves that our agriculture is highly backward.
- Rise in the quantity of Agricultural Labor-
The quantity of agricultural labor is increasing continuously showing that the number of daily wagers is rising in the agricultural sector.
- Lower development of ancillary sector-
Ancillary sectors which include services, banking, communication, transportation, telecommute are not much developed in India. Here approx. 20 % of the population is involved in ancillary functions as compared to 65 activities as against 66% in USA and 56% in UK.
There are certain problems and difficulties related to various sectors of Occupational Structure. Some of these are mentioned below:-
- In the agricultural sector, the main difficulty faced is that the farmers are very poor and they don't get subsidies from the government. They are using outdated techniques and machinery and putting in tireless efforts but the returns are very minimal. They also face problems in case their crops get destroyed due to unseasonal rainfall and at times they are not able to sell their grains at a profitable price. Despite India being an agrarian economy, we still have to import grains from other countries.
- In the industrial sector, the major problems faced are as follows:-
- Non-attainment of targets
- Capacities being under-utilized
- Lack of proper facilities
- High cost industrial economy
- Lower creation of jobs
- Poor output of public sector
- Imbalance in sectors
- Imbalance in religions
- Industries falling sick viz. small scale and cottage industries
- Some of the generic issues faced by Service sector are:-
- Lack of proper infrastructure viz. power, water supply, inadequate skill development
- Low employment
- Inadequacy of funds
- Lack of proper maintenance
- Cannot grow in isolation
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