It will always make us feel curious about, how are we so unique in this world since, all living things contain the same chemical composition. How the lion could reproduce lion not tiger. Why plants are completely from animals. Why human is more alike their parents. How human is bigger since, having ≈ 21,000 gene and mice looks small having ≈ 23,000. These shows that number is gene are not responsible for size of the organism. To understand the gene function, Knowledge on genetics is must also give answer for all the genetic questions. We have brief discussion the genetics in the following topics.
What is gene?
Each and every living thing from lower to higher level of organism contain cell. Each and every cell contains genetic material called DNA (Deoxyribonucleic acid) sequence. In which all sequence does not code for proteins. The sequence code for the protein are gene, the number of gene may differ from various organisms. These proteins are structural or functional but responsible for inheritance of trait. The chemical composition of the gene is four base pairs adenine (A), thymine (T), cytosine (C) and guanine (G). All humans have same number of chromosomes, same locus of gene in the chromosome, but the difference in the one or two base pair in the gene make us unique. This changes of single base during replication and is not corrected in gene repair mechanism is mutation. The gene is the blueprint to makeup the complete organisms with the building block of proteins, carbohydrates, lipids and other compounds.
What is genetics?
Gregor Johann Mendel (An Augustinian monk) is the father of genetic. Genetics, it is the branch of biology that studies hereditary information is transfer from parent to offspring and genetic variation. Every living from lower level to the higher level of organisms has the genes which inherit the trait from one generation to next generation, which started at 1990 and completed at 2003. The Human genome project sequenced complete human genome, which revealed the result that human has genes varies between 20,000 and 25,000. Genes inherit combined mixed characters from parents to the child to makes us unique and our family member's look-alike. It controls all the reaction in the living system.
Is genetics Important for students?
It is the essential for students to learn genetics to advance in understand the diseases to make medicine and the health problem that are genetic factors influenced, which helps to keep us healthy and free from genetic diseases, sickle-cell anemia, cystic fibrosis etc. Our scientist and doctors hope to cure the disease by treating the gene, called Gene Therapy The advancement in agriculture is to produce the new hybrid plant, called genetically modified (GM) plants to produce the GM crops, which gives a high yield by modifying the genetic composition. GMO crops have both advantages and disadvantages. With the deep understanding knowledge, we could make only advantageous crops to make human benefit in yield, but also nutrient rich crops. The scientists are still struggling in complete understanding of the genome, since it is highly complex.
Difficulty in solving genetics problem
Genetics is difficult subject for Students to understand since; it involves relations between the events of different levels of biological organization. In solving genetics problems, The Mendelian classical laws (Law of Segregation states and Law of Independent Assortment) is away from the concept of non-mendelian concept (Co-dominance and incomplete dominance) are making the problem difficult, which are due to cross-over during the meiotic cell division. Mutation plays the vital role in misleading the concept of the genetic problem. Mutation could occur at all the time at the genome that will resolve by gene repair mechanism. Mutation play vital role in the evolution. Understanding the mutation is still under research. The traditional way of teaching literature for the students will not helpful in solving the problems. Problem solver requires both subject knowledge and selection of appropriate cognitive strategies to and means in order to reach the desired out-comes.
Important topics for genetic problems
There are certain concepts to solve the genetics problem.
- Allele, The gene or genotype of the character
- Trait, The physical character or phenotype
- Chromosomes, A thread-like, gene-carrying bodies in the nucleus of a cell
- Albinism, Is a condition which results when the pigment for normal skin color fails to form and this due to a recessive gene
- The principle of segregation (First Law): The two members of a gene pair (alleles) segregate (separate) from each other in the gametes formation. Half the gametes carry one allele, and the other half carries the other allele.
- The principle of independent assortment (Second Law): Genes of Different traits assort independently of one another in the gametes formation.
- Incomplete dominance is a form of intermediate inheritance, where the allele of trait in not completely expressed and allele of the recessive trait are also expressed which give the trait of combination of the both trait. These are the Incomplete dominant or co-dominant. This Incomplete dominance will occur due to gene-cross over meiotic cell division of the prophase I.
#Crossing over meiosis
- During meiosis, crossing over occurs during prophase I. It is the exchange of genetic material between homologous chromosomes that results in recombinant chromosomes, which contribute to genetic diversity.Live Biology expert tutors support for Biology assignment help
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